Windows进程CPU、内存等资源限制

Windows自身没有提供类似Linux cgroup的能力来限制进程或进程组的资源占用,进程CPU/IO/内存/网络等资源的控制只能由自己实现。目前已有第三方的实现,主要是限制进程CPU的占用,如文档 < 21 Best Ways to Limit the CPU Usage of a Process > 所描述的BES,Process Tamer等软件。自Windows 8及Server 2012开始Windows系统有提供以job为单位的CPU占用及内存上限设置,之前的版本则只能以进程或线程为单位进行限制。

进程CPU占用限制方案

即时轮询系统所有进程(线程)的CPU占用,当发现所设定进程有超标时强制暂停进程所有线程的执行,然后在适当的时机再恢复执行。其中所涉及技术点:

进程CPU占用查询 GetProcessTimes

BOOL GetProcessTimes(
  [in]  HANDLE     hProcess,
  [out] LPFILETIME lpCreationTime,
  [out] LPFILETIME lpExitTime,
  [out] LPFILETIME lpKernelTime,
  [out] LPFILETIME lpUserTime
);

此函数可以获取进程从创建至当前的总运行时间及总的CPU时间,(KernelTime + UserTime) < 系统CPU数 * (当前时间 - CreationTime)

线程CPU占用查询 GetThreadTimes

BOOL GetThreadTimes(
  [in]  HANDLE     hThread,
  [out] LPFILETIME lpCreationTime,
  [out] LPFILETIME lpExitTime,
  [out] LPFILETIME lpKernelTime,
  [out] LPFILETIME lpUserTime
);

QueryThreadCycleTime可以提供更精准的CPU时间数据,单位为CPU时钟周期

BOOL QueryThreadCycleTime(
  [in]  HANDLE   ThreadHandle,
  [out] PULONG64 CycleTime
);

线程暂停及恢复

Windows平台没有提供暂停整个进程的支持函数,只能以线程为单位来操作,即SuspendThread及ResumeThread:

DWORD SuspendThread(
  [in] HANDLE hThread
);
DWORD ResumeThread(
  [in] HANDLE hThread
);

CPU亲和性设置: SetProcessAffinityMask

BOOL SetProcessAffinityMask(
  [in] HANDLE    hProcess,
  [in] DWORD_PTR dwProcessAffinityMask
);

此函数可以限定进程及其所有线程所能使用的CPU,故一定程序上亦限定了进程最大的系统CPU占用率。

DWORD_PTR SetThreadAffinityMask(
  [in] HANDLE    hThread,
  [in] DWORD_PTR dwThreadAffinityMask
);

此函数可单独限制特定线程的CPU亲和性。

进程优先级设置: SetPriorityClass

优先级解决的是优先运行及退让CPU的问题,本质上并不能限定CPU占用,只是优先级高于当前任务的忙碌的时候,当前进程会主动退让CPU 线程优先级设置:SetThreadPriority

BOOL SetThreadPriority(
  [in] HANDLE hThread,
  [in] int    nPriority
);

Job Objects

Windows系统提供了Job的概念用以管理多个进程,可以限制Job对象内所有进程及期线程的CPU核心占用、CPU占用及内存分配上限等,均通过SetInformationJobObject来实现,具体的CPU限制由JOBOBJECT_CPU_RATE_CONTROL_INFORMATION管理,内存限制则由JOBOBJECT_EXTENDED_LIMIT_INFORMATION来管理。

BOOL SetInformationJobObject(
  [in] HANDLE             hJob,
  [in] JOBOBJECTINFOCLASS JobObjectInformationClass,
  [in] LPVOID             lpJobObjectInformation,
  [in] DWORD              cbJobObjectInformationLength
);

需要注意的是CPU占用设置只有Windows 8及Server 2012之后的版本有效。

CPU Sets

此部分只限定了CPU Affinity属性

实验验证

可以直接利用开源项目go-winjob验证,验证系统Windows 8 x64,go-winjob git repo: https://github.com/kolesnikovae/go-winjob

验证程序

#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
#include &lt;stdlib.h&gt;

void main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
        unsigned long total = 0, count = 0, i = 0;

        while (1) {
                if (malloc(1024)) {
                        total += 1024;
                        count++;
                }
                if (!(++i &amp; 4095))
                        printf(&quot;alloc: %u size: %u bytes\n&quot;, count, total);
    }
}

无限制

在无限制的情况下,此进程会占满一个CPU核心,commit内存总占用达2G CPUStress unlimited

单一进程

在设定CPU上限16%及内存16M上限之后,结果如下: CPUStress single process examples/job_object.go按如下修改:

var limits = []winjob.Limit{
        winjob.WithBreakawayOK(),
        winjob.WithKillOnJobClose(),
        winjob.WithActiveProcessLimit(3),
        winjob.WithProcessTimeLimit(10 * time.Second),
        winjob.WithCPUHardCapLimit(1600),        // 16%
        winjob.WithProcessMemoryLimit(16 &lt;&lt; 20), // 16MB
        winjob.WithWriteClipboardLimit(),
}

const defaultCommand = &quot;.\\CPUStress.exe&quot;

多进程(双进程)

将winjob.WithProcessMemoryLimit 改为 winjob.WithJobMemoryLimit,后者表示此job内所有进程要占用的总内存限制:

var limits = []winjob.Limit{
        winjob.WithBreakawayOK(),
        winjob.WithKillOnJobClose(),
        winjob.WithActiveProcessLimit(3),
        winjob.WithProcessTimeLimit(10 * time.Second),
        winjob.WithCPUHardCapLimit(1600),    // 16%
        winjob.WithJobMemoryLimit(16 &lt;&lt; 20), // 16MB
        winjob.WithWriteClipboardLimit(),
}

验证结果如下: CPUStress 2-processes CPUStress 2-processes

winjob example代码:

// +build windows

package main

import (
        &quot;encoding/json&quot;
        &quot;log&quot;
        &quot;os&quot;
        &quot;os/exec&quot;
        &quot;os/signal&quot;
        &quot;time&quot;

        &quot;golang.org/x/sys/windows&quot;

        &quot;github.com/kolesnikovae/go-winjob&quot;
)

var limits = []winjob.Limit{
        winjob.WithBreakawayOK(),
        winjob.WithKillOnJobClose(),
        winjob.WithActiveProcessLimit(3),
        winjob.WithProcessTimeLimit(10 * time.Second),
        winjob.WithCPUHardCapLimit(1600),    // 16%
        winjob.WithJobMemoryLimit(16 &lt;&lt; 20), // 16MB
        winjob.WithWriteClipboardLimit(),
}

const defaultCommand = &quot;.\\CPUStress.exe&quot;
const stressCommand  = &quot;.\\CPUStressX64.exe&quot;

func main() {
        job, err := winjob.Create(&quot;&quot;, limits...)
        if err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Create: %v&quot;, err)
        }

        cmd := exec.Command(defaultCommand)
        cmd.Stderr = os.Stderr
        cmd.SysProcAttr = &amp;windows.SysProcAttr{
                CreationFlags: windows.CREATE_SUSPENDED,
        }
        if err := cmd.Start(); err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Start: %v&quot;, err)
        }

        stress := exec.Command(stressCommand)
        stress.Stderr = os.Stderr
        stress.SysProcAttr = &amp;windows.SysProcAttr{
                CreationFlags: windows.CREATE_SUSPENDED,
        }
        if err := stress.Start(); err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Start: %v&quot;, err)
        }

        s := make(chan os.Signal, 1)
        signal.Notify(s, os.Interrupt)

        c := make(chan winjob.Notification)
        subscription, err := winjob.Notify(c, job)
        if err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Notify: %v&quot;, err)
        }

        done := make(chan struct{})
        go func() {
                defer close(done)
                ticker := time.NewTicker(time.Second * 5)
                defer ticker.Stop()
                var counters winjob.Counters
                for {
                        select {
                        case &lt;-s:
                                log.Println(&quot;Closing job object&quot;)
                                if err := job.Close(); err != nil {
                                        log.Fatal(err)
                                }
                                log.Println(&quot;Closing subscription&quot;)
                                if err := subscription.Close(); err != nil {
                                        log.Fatal(err)
                                }
                                return

                        case n, ok := &lt;-c:
                                if ok {
                                        log.Printf(&quot;Notification: %#v\n&quot;, n)
                                } else if err := subscription.Err(); err != nil {
                                        log.Fatalf(&quot;Subscription: %v&quot;, err)
                                }

                        case &lt;-ticker.C:
                                if err := job.QueryCounters(&amp;counters); err != nil {
                                        log.Fatalf(&quot;QueryCounters: %v&quot;, err)
                                }
                                b, err := json.MarshalIndent(counters, &quot;&quot;, &quot;\t&quot;)
                                if err != nil {
                                        log.Fatal(err)
                                }
                                log.Printf(&quot;Counters: \n%s\n&quot;, b)
                        }
                }
        }()

        if err := job.Assign(cmd.Process); err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Assign: %v&quot;, err)
        }
        if err := winjob.Resume(cmd); err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Resume: %v&quot;, err)
        }

        if err := job.Assign(stress.Process); err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Assign: %v&quot;, err)
        }
        if err := winjob.Resume(stress); err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Resume: %v&quot;, err)
        }

        if err := cmd.Wait(); err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Wait: %v&quot;, err)
        }
        if err := stress.Wait(); err != nil {
                log.Fatalf(&quot;Wait: %v&quot;, err)
        }

        // Wait for a signal.
        &lt;-done
}

参考链接

  1. 21 Best Ways to Limit the CPU Usage of a Process
  2. MSDN: Windows Process and Thread Functions
  3. MSDN: CPU Sets
  4. GetThreadTimes

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